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This claim is, of course, patently false, especially if you plan to diverge from well-trodden tourist paths or should you confront recent immigrants to Germany who, while transporting you in their cab or taking your dinner order, are in the midst of their own efforts to learn German.

The claim also ignores the access that knowing another language gives you to its culture, as well as the efforts made by non-native speakers of English to get closer to us.

They, however, will not have forgotten and will truly appreciate your interest in them and your willingness to meet them at least halfway.

Jacobson Professor of German and Associate Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, University of Lincoln-Nebraska Introduction In the last hundred years, parts of the world that we would have had to travel months by boat to reach are now just a few hours away.

There are, however, many other ways of traveling. We travel in books, movies, and on the Internet, and we travel in our imaginations.

Some people believe that the soul of a culture resides in the grammatical patterns, in the linguistic intricacies, in the phonetics of its language.

The authors of this book share this view. The German language reveals German books, people, and customs in ways that are lost in translation.

What are these tools? Many chapters in this book are held together thematically as if you were off on an imaginary journey to a German-speaking land.

Each chapter builds on the one that preceded it, expanding on what you have learned. Learning a new language is, after all, a bit like evolving rapidly from infant to adult.

First you learn to crawl through the new sounds of the language, and then you learn to walk proudly through basic grammar and vocabulary.

The chapter on food will help you understand where to buy all kinds of food in Germany and how to interpret a German menu. Is your watch broken? Do you need film for your camera?

Did some food stain your new shirt? By the end of this section, you should be able to buy or rent a house, an apartment, or even a castle if extravagance appeals to you.

By the time you finish this book, you will have the basic German language skills to embark on real journeys—in books, on planes, and in conversations.

Be persistent, be patient, be creative, and your rewards will speak in German for themselves. These elements are distinguished by the following icons: Culture Shock Achtung Culture shock elements provide facts about interesting facets of life in Germany and other German-speaking cultures.

They offer you quick glimpses into the German culture. Achtung boxes warn you of mistakes that are commonly made by those who are learning the German language and offer you advice about how to avoid these mistakes yourself.

We Are Family This box gives you definitions of grammatical terms. This box tells you all about the linguistic connections between German and our own language, English.

Many foreign words have been adopted by the German language and still retain their foreign pronunciation. These words do not follow the German pronunciation guide included in this book.

Acknowledgments The authors and reviser would like to acknowledge the support of the following people in the creation of this book: She is a frequent presenter at foreign language and linguistic conferences and has published several papers on the topic of German and English linguistics.

Special thanks are extended to Christina Hassemer, a native of Germany and currently a teaching assistant at Washington College in Maryland.

Trademarks All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be or are suspected of being trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized.

Alpha Books and Pearson Education cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

You are a great fan of Goethe and of many other German writers and philosophers, Dichter und Denker, as you recall having heard one of your German friends refer to them.

You take it off the shelf and ask yourself three questions: Do I have the time to learn German now? Will I stick with it?

Only you can answer the first two questions. You will make the time! You will stick to it! Here is a list of answers for the third: Why, honestly, should you learn German?

Get Serious The following are some more serious reasons why you might want to study German: German is the native language of more than million people.

German is also spoken as the native language in Austria; Liechtenstein; much of Switzerland; South Tirol northern Italy ; and in small areas of Belgium, France Alsace , and Luxembourg along the German border.

The German minorities in Poland, Romania, and the countries of the former Soviet Union have partly retained the German language as well.

As a student in the liberal arts, you should be familiar with Kafka, Hesse, Rilke, and Nietzsche. And what was Mac the Knife really up to?

About one in 10 books published throughout the world has been written in German. In regard to translations into foreign languages, German is third after English and French, and more works have been translated into German than into any other language.

The Federal Republic of Germany is one of the major industrial countries in the world. In terms of overall economic performance, it is the third largest, and with regard to world trade, it holds second place.

As one of the largest industrial and trading nations, the Federal Republic of Germany maintains diplomatic relations with nearly every country in the world and is an attractive region for investment.

By international standards, the new federal states are now an attractive industrial location for foreign investors, represented by some 1, foreign firms from about 50 countries.

Germany is home to more than 3, museums: German architecture set trends in the first 30 years of the twentieth century, with the strongest influence coming from Weimar and Dessau, where the Bauhaus school was founded in the s and the style that bears its name evolved.

Immerse Yourself Everybody knows that the best way to learn a new language is to totally immerse yourself in it. When you buy books of German poetry, buy the ones where the German translation is given alongside the English so that your eyes can move back and forth between the two.

Here are a few more suggestions for immersing yourself in German: Four intense and concentrated minute study sessions are much more effective than a four-hour language-learning marathon.

Constant repetition of previously studied material involving as many senses as possible speaking, listening, seeing will help you get German into your longterm memory.

You can understand more than you think just by listening to and watching the actors. You can learn the meaning of German phrases by scanning subtitles.

Watch German shows on your TV. Go to public libraries and listen to language tapes. Listening will help you master German pronunciation.

Read the brothers Grimm die Gebrüder Grimm side by side with the translation. Whenever you buy a new product, look for and read the German instructions on the side of the packet or in the instruction booklet.

Focus, Die Bunte, and Der Stern, to name a few. Some people are downright terrified. They think it will be too much work—too many new sounds, too many new words—and that the grammar will be too difficult.

You have to make an effort. Learning a language takes time and a certain amount of determination. One thing we can assure you of is that if you take it slowly—at your own pace—without allowing yourself to get discouraged, you can only get better.

Here are a few tips to help you maintain a positive attitude: Research shows that the best language learners are willing to take risks and make mistakes.

Stick to simple grammatical constructions. Practice vowel sound combinations. Make rumbling sounds in the back of your throat whenever you get the chance—in cabs, subways, buses, in the shower, or at night before falling asleep.

And remember, many regional accents are heard in Germany—your accent will fit in somewhere! They are a hospitable people and are impressed by anyone who tries to speak their language.

Germans will feel that way about you when you miss an ending or use an incorrect verb tense. It actually has a great deal in common with English.

If you apply yourself, you will soon discover that German is easier than you thought and that it also is fun to learn. Believe it or not, German and English stem from the same ancestral language family.

The more effort you put into this project, the more your German will improve. This chapter gives you an idea of what it takes to master frequently encountered German phrases and words.

When you think about it, studying German makes sense. So drop the golf club, the computer mouse, and the VCR remote control. Get way ahead of your colleagues: Hypochonder Der Teufel hol das Menschengeschlecht!

Man möchte rasend werden! Da nehm ich mir so eifrig vor: Und kaum seh ich ein Menschengesicht, So hab ichs wieder lieb.

Hypochondriac Devil take the human race! I continually make firm resolutions to stop seeing people and to consign the whole nation to God and to itself and to the devil!

And then I have only to see a human face and I love it again. The English version works about as well as using a sledgehammer to slice bread.

Double meanings, which can add spice to everything from limericks to e-mail, are nearly impossible to maintain in translation: How Much German Is Enough?

Take a moment to consider your motives: Culture Shock Many medical and scientific words are easy to understand in German and hard to understand in English.

Try saying that three times fast! Your knowledge of grammar will remain somewhat passive, outshined by your expansive knowledge German vocabulary expressing abstractions.

Figuring out how German structures its sentences will help you develop the patience to wait for the verb. If you understand what you need from the German language, you easily can tailor this book to your needs and use it to your advantage.

What do you need to know to use a bilingual dictionary? Using a bilingual dictionary is a little tougher than using an English dictionary.

After finding the German translation for an English word, go ahead and take a moment to look up that new German word. The next thing you should do is figure out what the abbreviations used in the definitions mean.

Here are a few of them: Prepositions are words such as above, along, beyond, before, through, in, to, and for that are placed before nouns to indicate a relationship to other words in a sentence.

For example, you should know how to use the basic parts of speech. Take the word inside. Do you see how the meaning of the word changes in the following sentences when it is used as various parts of speech?

He could feel it in his insides. Innerhalb, im Innern von or Gen. We will be home inside of two hours. He had inside information on the horse race. We go inside the cave.

He hides the key inside the box. Because the possible combinations of nouns are practically unlimited, you can actually create your own compound words pretty much as you please by linking nouns together.

The ability to create words at will in German is one reason that this language has been so instrumental to many great thinkers. They have been able to express new concepts and ideas by coining, or making up, new words.

The flip side to this flexibility is that these compound words are not easily translatable. As a Rule Many German words in academic texts are compound words, and some of these compound words are not in the dictionary.

A knowledge of basic German vocabulary will enable you to take apart those big, cumbersome compound words and look up their components one by one in a bilingual dictionary.

The more you rely on and trust your powers of deduction, the easier learning a foreign language becomes! Although these similarities seem fortuitous to the English-speaking learner of German you!

Once upon a time, in fact, the Germanic languages were closely related to the following linguistic groups: Indo-European, spoken more than 6, years ago, was the predecessor language of English and most European languages, minus Finnish and Hungarian.

But it took a German, Jacob Grimm, to figure out the sound correspondences between various branches of Indo-European and Germanic languages.

The Germanic languages can be subdivided according to geographical location: North Germanic languages are Scandinavian, including Icelandic, Norwegian, Faroese, Gothlandic, Swedish, and Danish; East Germanic is represented chiefly by Gothic, an extinct language preserved in a fourth-century Bible translation.

So what happened to cause the rift between English and German? No, not of earth, but of consonants, which occurred in the southernmost reaches of the German-speaking lands sometime around the fifth century.

Linguistic Relates to language, and linguistics is the study of the nature and structure of human speech. The first shift circa B.

Consider the baffled Italian, Spaniard, or Rumanian learning English. What is this poor learner of English to do with threw and through? German is what is called a phonetic language; German words are pronounced exactly as they are spelled.

In German it is always pronounced. This rule makes it easy to spell, as well. You need simply to learn what sounds are represented by the letters in German.

Also, you should get comfortable enunciating every letter in a word. This chapter helps you figure out how to pronounce German vowels.

Vowel a, e, i, o, and u are vowels. Umlaut The term for the two dots that can be placed over the vowels a, o, and u. Modified or mutated vowel A vowel that takes an umlaut is referred to as a modified vowel, incurring a mutation of sound.

Three German vowels—a, o, and u— can do a little cross-dressing. They are sometimes written with two dots above them. These two dots are called an umlaut and signal a change in the sound and meaning of a word.

The sounds represented by ö and o are just as different as the English a versus u. When a vowel takes an umlaut, it becomes a modified or mutated vowel.

The vowel tables in this chapter provide hints, English examples, and the letters used as symbols to represent the sounds of vowels in German words.

Stress The emphasis placed on one or more syllables of a word when you pronounce it. Stress is the emphasis placed on one or more syllables of a word when you pronounce it.

A general rule for determining the stressed syllable in German is: With words of more than one syllable, the emphasis is usually placed on the first syllable, as in the words Bleistift, Schönheit, and Frag, thanks to the accenting established in early Germanic.

Foreign words such as Hotel, Musik, and Philosophie that have been assimilated into the German language do not follow German rules of stress or pronunciation, although they do acquire German pronunciation of vowels.

Your Own Personal Accent Some people have no problem pronouncing new sounds in a foreign language. They were born rolling their Rs, courtesy of genetics, and producing throaty gutturals.

Some people spend their adolescence serving as conduits at seances for famous dead Germans, Russians, Spaniards, and Italians.

Not all of us have been so lucky. Vowels To pronounce words correctly in a new language, you must retrain your tongue. Those intuitive skills you used to acquire your first language will enable you to learn a foreign language.

Heightening your linguistic awareness, you can teach your tongue to make new sounds the same way you would teach your muscles to make new movements if you suddenly decided to change your hobby from long-distance running to synchronized swimming.

As an adult language learner, you are able to monitor your speech—comparing your utterances with your conscious knowledge and correcting yourself accordingly.

After you learn how to pronounce German words correctly, reading them will be a breeze. Additionally, this same alphabet represents consistent sounds in German.

The Famous Umlaut Remember those versatile two dots we spoke about earlier? In German those two dots are known as an umlaut: The umlaut, really just a writing device to indicate another vowel sound, alters the sound of a vowel Achtung and makes a meaning change.

Sometimes the change is grammatical, as in a plural form and in An umlaut can be added only to the comparison of an adjective, but most of the a, o, or u.

It can never be added time the change is lexical—that is, it produces an to e or i. Around the year , resulting from a change in word endings, the vowel a, formed in the back part of the oral cavity, slid forward, approximating the front vowel i.

This phenomenon of partial assimilation is visible in the Germanization of Attila to Etzel. By the eleventh century, the umlaut had, in general, spread to include other back vowels, such as o and u, and to diphthongs.

One of the differences between written English and written German is that German nouns are always capitalized. Compare this English sentence with the translated German sentence.

Note the capital letters in the following sentences: Which famous German writer and philosopher said that pleasure is simply the absence of pain? Welcher berühmte deutsche Schriftsteller und Philosoph sagte, dass das Vergnügen schlicht die Abwesenheit von Kummer sei?

The answer is Arthur Schopenhauer. When it comes to the pronunciation of vowels, keep in mind that vowel sounds are organized into three principal types.

These three types of vowel sounds are referred to throughout this book as vowels, modified vowels, and diphthongs.

In German both of these groups can have long vowel sounds, which, as their name suggests, have a drawn out vowel sound like the o sound in snow or shorter vowel sounds, which have a shorter sound like the o sound in lot.

They begin with one vowel sound and end Diphthongs Combinations with a different vowel sound in the same syllable, as of vowels that begin with one in the words wine and bowel keep in mind that the vowel sound and end with a difsound of a diphthong in English can often be proferent vowel sound in the same duced by a single vowel, as in the word rose.

Vowels As a Rule Generally, a vowel is long when it is followed by an h as in Mahl mahl , an orthographic device thought up by fifteenth century spelling reformers.

A vowel is also long when it is doubled, as in Meer meyR and Aal ahl , or when it is followed by a single consonant, as in Wagen vah-guhn.

The vowel i is made into a long vowel when it is followed by an e, think Bier beeR. In general, vowels are short when followed by two or more consonants just as in English.

In the following pronunciation guide, each vowel appears in its own section. We try to give you an idea of how vowel sounds are pronounced by providing an English equivalent.

Obviously, we cannot account for regional differences in either the German or English pronunciations of vowels and words.

It may help to read the English pronunciation example first and then to repeat each German word out loud for practice. Say A as in Modern For the short a, assume a British accent and make the sound of the vowel in the back of your throat.

Now read the following German words out loud: This shorty is always flanked by consonants. Bett bet bed Dreck dRek dirt Fleck flek spot nett net nice When the e is unstressed, as it will be at the end of a word, it is pronounced like the e in mother.

Bitte bi-tuh request alle A-luh all bekommen buh-ko-muhn to receive Dame dah-muh lady Hose hoh-zuh trousers There is no exact equivalent of the German long e sound in English, but you can approximate it by trying to make the sound of the stressed e and ay at the same time be careful not to produce a diphthong.

Try saying these words: Vowels Say I as in Winter The short i is easy. It sounds like the i in the English words wind or winter. Try saying the following words: Wind vint wind Kind kint child schlimm shlim bad Himmel hi-muhl heaven hinter hin-tuhR behind For the long i, try saying cheeeeeeeese and widening your mouth!

Liter lee-tuhR liter Tiger tee-guhR tiger ihr eeR her; you Fliege flee-guh fly schieben shee-buhn to push German Letter Symbol Pronunciation Guide i short i, ie, ih long i ee Say i as in winter Say ee as in beet Say O as in Lord In German the sound of the short o should resonate slightly farther back in your mouth than the o sound in English.

Mutter moo-tuhR mother Luft looft air Schuld shoolt guild bunt boont bright Geduld guh-doolt patience Imitate your favorite cow Kuh for this long u sound: Usually, the German e is soft, like the e in effort or the a in ago.

Be careful not to run the two us together when pronouncing uu in words like Vakuum va-koo-oom and Individuum in-dee-vee-doo-oom. In most cases the two letters are read as short us and are given equal stress.

They should be treated as separate syllables, as they are in the English word residuum. Many German words are consistently spelled with umlauts, but other words take an umlaut when they undergo some change in pronunciation and meaning.

This guide treats each modified vowel separately, giving you hints to help you make the correct sounds. Focus on getting the sounds right one sound at a time.

Stärke shtäR-kuh strength Männer mä-nuhR men hängen hän-guhn to hang ständig shtän-diH constantly The long ä is the same sound as the short ä, only with the sound prolonged—a quantitative rather than qualitative alteration.

Round your lips and say ew sound while tightening the muscles at the back of your throat. Öffnung öf-noong opening möchten möH-tuhn would like to Hölle hö-luh hell Löffel lö-fuhl spoon Keep the long ö sound going for twice as long, just as you did the short ö sound.

Glück glük luck Mücke mük-uh mosquito Rücken Rü-kuhn back Rhytmus Rüt-moos rhythm The long ü or y is the same sound, just held for a longer interval of time.

For example, a vowel or modified vowel is short when followed by two consonants. When either a vowel or modified vowel is followed by an h and another consonant, however, or even by a single consonant, the vowel is long.

Diphthongs Diphthongs are not a provocative new style of bikini. In English we tend to dipthogize vowels in words like sky, where the y is pronounced ah-ee, and go, where the o is pronounced oh-oo.

Vowels u in the English word about come together to create the diphthong ah-oo. Whatever form they take, diphthongs are always made up of two different vowel sounds that change in the same syllable.

How do you recognize a diphthong? In German they are vowels that travel in pairs. Here are the diphthongs most frequently used in German.

For other diphthongs, each vowel should be pronounced the same way it would be if pronounced separately: Kollision ko-lee-zeeohn , Familie fah-mee-leeuh.

Think Bier beeR versus Wein vayn. The Diphthongs el and al To make the sound of these diphthongs, start with your mouth halfway open, end with your mouth almost—but not quite—closed.

Practice with these words: You knit your eyebrows together and cry out in pain: Try making this ow sound as you say these words: German friends or, in the absence of live, German-speaking human beings, German tapes from your local library would come in handy now.

You should try to listen to native German speakers, particularly because many of the modified vowel sounds do not have English equivalents. At this point, concentrate on getting the sounds right.

Start making vowel sounds way back in your throat. Practice making the umlauted vowel sounds, just as you would any new sound.

What good is Astaire without Rogers; Penn without Teller; hamburgers without catsup, lettuce, a tomato slice, and a pickle? The bottom line is, say oo or ee as often as you like: The good news is, the sounds of German consonants are not going to be as unfamiliar as many of the sounds you tried in the previous chapter.

German consonants are either pronounced like their English counterparts or are pronounced like other consonants in English. In either case, it should be pronounced like an s.

Consonants All the letters in the alphabet other than a, e, i, o, and u. Consonants are best described as involving some obstruction of the air stream, whereas vowels do not have any sort of obstruction.

In August , Germany decided to implement a spelling reform. Regarding when to spell with the es-tset and when to use a double s, the es-tset is used after long vowels a concept introduced in the last chapter.

Conquering Consonants Before you start stuttering out consonants, we should probably tell you a little about how this section works.

The consonants in the following tables are not given in alphabetical order. They are grouped according to pronunciation type.

For each letter, we provide English examples of how German consonants are pronounced along with the symbols used throughout this book to represent the sounds.

Keep in mind that the symbols consonants or combinations of consonants, lowercase or uppercase are not the standard ones used in the dictionary. When you see these letters, just go ahead and pronounce them the way you do in English words.

They are called plosives because of they way their sounds are articulated: Consonants word initial or when followed by a vowel, these sounds involving a stoppage of air utilize the vocal cords.

Utter a b sound with a hand on your throat where your vocal box is. You should feel vibrations. Its counter sound articulated at exactly the same place in the mouth, in exactly the same way, but not involving the vocal cords is a p.

Whisper, and you will not feel the vibrations in your vocal cords. This sound is heard in German at the end of a word yet is orthographically spelling-wise represented with a b.

For example, at the beginning of a syllable, b is pronounced the same way as it is in English: The English L is dark, formed with the tongue more relaxed.

The German L—light, nearly as vibrant as the German R—is formed with the tip of the tongue just behind the upper front teeth.

German Letter Symbol Pronunciation Guide b b at the end of a syllable b p Say b as in big Say p as in pipe At the beginning of a syllable, the d is pronounced like an English d: German Letter Symbol Pronunciation Guide d d at the end of a syllable d t Say d as in dog Say t as in tail At the beginning of a syllable, g is pronounced the same as it is in English: At the end of a syllable, g is pronounced like k: The consonant g has yet another pronunciation, thanks to foreign infiltration.

In certain words, usually ones that have been assimilated into the German language from other languages—namely, French, pronounce the g as in Massage mA-sah-juh.

But check it out! We have the same word-building suffix in English, derived from Old English into Middle English -lic, meaning like, as in childlike.

Eventually, this same suffix doubled its purpose and became the standard way to form an adverb as in the Present Day English friendly or homely.

Got a Frog in Your Throat? If you can draw out this h sound longer than you do in these two English words, you should have very little trouble pronouncing the following words accurately: Consonants learned farther back in your throat—a little like gargling.

Give this a shot: Yoh-hAn zey-bAs-tee-ahn bahhhh gargle and hiss like a cat simultaneously at the end. Once you can do this, you have nothing to worry about: Practice by reading the following words aloud: In general, when ch occurs at the beginning of a word, it is pronounced like a k: Chaos kA-os , Charisma kah-ris-mah.

Exceptions occur, however, as in China, where the ch may be pronounced the same way it is in ich. The ch has a fourth pronunciation: This pronunciation is usually used only for foreign words that have been assimilated into the German language: In some cases, h is silent when it follows a t, as in Theater tey-ah-tuhR.

Otherwise, the h is pronounced very much like the English h—just a little breathier. Think of an obscene phone caller breathing heavily on the other end of the line and try the following: You produce glottal stops all the time, believe it or not, whenever you disagree, shake your head, and utter: That tiny pause between the syllables is referred to as a glottal stop!

Whenever you see a j in German, pronounce it like an English y: Z and Sometimes C The z sound is made by combining the consonant sounds t and s into one sound: CäsaR tsähzahR , or like the first c in circa tseeR-kah.

Otherwise, it should be pronounced like a k: Consonants Double or Nothing: In English, the k is silent in words like knight and knot.

In German, however, both k and n are pronounced: Photograph foh-toh-gRahf , Physik füh-sik. In the other consonant combinations in this chart, both letters are pronounced: The German R If you thought you were tongue tied the first time you asked a girl or guy for a kiss, wait till you try the German R.

Think of it as a fun challenge for any tongue. Position your lips as if you are about to make the r sound but then make the gargling sound you made for the German sound represented in this book by the symbol CH.

The sound should come from somewhere in the back of your throat. This book uses the same symbol R for both sounds. At the end of a word, however, s is pronounced like the English s: Maus mous , Glas glahs —note: Now practice with these words: Consonants The word-initial st sound is a combination of the sh sound in shake and the t sound in take.

Practice by saying the following words out loud: Tsch is pronounced tch, as in the word witch. The Classic VW In most cases the v is pronounced like an f: Vampir vAm-peeR , Vase vah-zuh.

You will readily recognize these, as English has borrowed them from French, as well! The following table is an abbreviated pronunciation guide of vowels, modified vowels, diphthongs, and consonants that differ in pronunciation from English consonants.

Consonants Letter s Symbol English Example German Example bats killer Close to human No equivalent character shape fox dog time good kitten jeans house yes No equivalent No equivalent photo psst!

If you have, we are willing to bet that you have succeeded in making most if not all of the sounds you will need to pronounce German words correctly.

Now, practice some more by reading the following sentences out loud. Ich habe gerade begonnen Deutsch zu lernen. Die Aussprache ist nicht so schwer.

Deutsch ist eine schöne Sprache. I just started to learn German. German is a beautiful language. So, once you link a letter with a sound, you can pronounce a word 18 syllables long!

What seems peculiar in written German will soon become familiar to you, and soon— particularly if you listen to the German being spoken on a tape or by a native speaker—you will begin to associate letters with their corresponding sounds.

Just click on a sound or word and hear it produced. Kitsch, Wind, Mensch, Angst, Arm, blond, irrational—the list of German words you already know is longer than you think.

The reason you know so much German is because many words in German are similar to or exactly like their English counterparts. These words are called cognates.

In addition, many German words have been used so much by English speakers that they have been swallowed whole, so to speak, into the English language to become a part of our vocabulary.

Many other German words are so similar to English words that you can master their meanings and pronunciations with little effort.

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to put together simple but meaningful sentences in German.

Nur wenige vermögen zu erklären, dass es einige grundsätzlich unterschiedliche Arten gibt, das Innenleben eines Sakkos aufzubauen, geschweige denn, die Qualität einer Sakkomachart zu beurteilen.

Je mehr Sorgfalt in der Auswahl der unsichtbaren Teile, beispielsweise der Einlagen und Polster, zu erkennen ist, desto eindeutiger ist deshalb die Qualität der sichtbaren Bestandteile zu erkennen.

Zur Beurteilung der Qualität des Sakkoinneren ist es zunächst wichtig, zu verstehen, was ein traditionell hergestelltes Schneidersakko so besonders macht, weswegen diese Betrachtung mit der obersten Qualitätsstufe beginnt.

Auch ist die Konstruktion im Inneren lediglich eine Komponente, die die Gesamtqualität des Sakkos ausmacht und wird durch Faktoren wie Passform, Stoffqualität und in vielen Fällen nicht zuletzt auch Preis ergänzt.

Der Oberstoff der gesamten Vorderseite des Sakkos ist dabei von einer Einlage aus Rosshaar oder Leinen verstärkt, die mit ihm vernäht ist. Auf die Einlage näht der Schneider im Brustbereich eine sogenanntes Plack, der wiederum aus einer oder mehreren Schichten Bauwolle, Leinen oder Rosshaar besteht.

Diese Arbeit wird, um maximale Anpassung an den Körper des Trägers und perfekte Form zu gewährleisten, von Hand ausgeführt und ist entsprechend aufwendig.

Auch Revers und Kragen erhalten eine oder mehrere Einlagen, die von Hand miteinander vernäht werden. Die Einlagen werden mit unendlich vielen kleinen und eng gesetzten Handstichen am Oberstoff —der späteren Reversrückseite— fixiert, und zwar so, dass lediglich winzige, kaum sichtbare Einstichstellen zu erkennen sind.

Das Revers erhält so eine unnachahmliche Sprungkraft und Lebhaftigkeit und Stabilität. Es ist wohl unnötig, zu erwähnen, dass ein auf diese Art hergestelltes Sakko schon wegen der vielen Arbeitsstunden, die zu seiner Fertigstellung nötig sind, nicht zum Kaufhauspreis zu erwerben ist.

And in the last sentence it says "ausgesehen. So since you get the idea of describing, let's learn a new verb! And the new verb is klingen which is to sound.

As in "He sounds weird. It's works just like other verbs. Exactly like in English. For right now, that's all for describing things. We are going to have some small describing lessons with some parts of this lesson.

Okay we just went over the verb in the previous section. This will basically be a list that will help you memorize them better, and there is not a lot.

Other than " klingen " and " fühlen " you should know all of these. The "Er sieht aus" is to show you it is a separable-prefix verb. This is also a large section of this lesson: There are many nationalities, too many to go over in this lesson, but you will learn more nationality as this level and book goes on.

Right now we are just going to have a vague little list, and as this section goes on there will be more. Finally, gentlemen, get ready to have your minds blown It is no surprise you can describe people with nationality, most times, it's stereotypical, like Norwegians are blonde, tall, etc.

However you can just use it for what it is, a nationality. If you do describe people by nationality this will help.

Okay, you should already know how to describe, right? This part we will get more in to detail later, but right it is an important part of describing people with nationality, even though in English we most times don't do this, in German they do.

The difference between nationality and language, like in English, French and French. But in German it is französisch and Franzose, Französin.

This also is how it works for nationality describing by noun or adjective, which we are going to learn right now.

There are two ways to describe someone. With a noun-based nationality word or an adjective-based nationality word.

But note that in German the noun-based form is used more often. Now we are all familiar with the word " alt' ", which means old.

And in English, to find out somebody's age we ask " How old are you? In German it is exactly the same. The " alt " kind of belongs to the interrogative adverb, so in both German and English it may be in front of the verb:.

To ask this important question in the 2nd person. First, we will learn the biggest question here, " How old are you? You should all ready get the pattern for this, but we are going to keep on doing this list, if you aren't sure of something or you are confused.

So for the 3rd person Now with some people you might be able to guess their age, and you could ask them directly about it. This is usually pretty of rude, but it illustrates nicely how the phrase has to be changed if you ask a yes-no-question, so let's get started, anyway!

Note the inversed order between "Wie alt bist du? When 'euer' has to have a different ending the e before r is dropped, so it turns into 'eur-'.

Don't let the weird order of the words disturb you, even if the phrase seems totally incomprehensible at first.

I'll try to construct this bit by bit:. Note that the "to" is already included in the German word "rechnen". This is one of the main reasons why complicated conjugations can survive, they contain information that doesn't have to be expressed otherwise then To be a little more polite or at least seem like it, since our teacher probably wouldn't take a no for an answer.

This is another example for brevity by conjugation. The word "möchte" contains the "would", as it is a "Konjunktiv"-form of the word "mögen" which translates to "like".

Don't be discouraged, many Germans don't realize this, and many don't use the Konjunktiv correctly, if ever. This is a direct object, "Aufgabe" is in the accusative case.

Because this is a feminine noun, this is not so obvious, but the structure is the same as in:. Now, we also have an adverbial expression of the place.

This is an expression that defines the verb, thus ad-verbial. Note that the order expressions is widely interchangeable.

You can emphasize something by putting it closer to the end of the question. Note that after "zu" follows the dative case, so "der" is not the masculine but the feminine article.

It is often used when writing legibly on a large, visible surface such as blackboard or a flipchart.

So, as you might have guessed, plus and minus are the same as in English - they are just pronounced German. The verbs "addieren" and "subtrahieren" are probably not difficult either This is also used in every day phrases, such as "mal habe ich dir gesagt Between single classes, there is usually a break of five minutes to allow teachers and students to go from one classroom to another.

In most schools, classes such as German, English, History, Philosophy are taught in the classroom. Classes that use special equipment, such as all sciences, music and arts and of course computers and sport are being taught in a specialized lab classes.

Roughly every second break is 15 minutes long, and if there are lessons in the afternoon, there's often a break of 45 to 60 minutes for lunch.

This sentence sounds strange. This is, because in everyday German, sometimes the verb gehen can be left out, if it is clear what is meant.

In this case, the complete phrase would have to be "Wir müssen zu Musik gehen ". But since Torsten will not think Silke is going to fly there, there will be no misunderstanding.

Additionally, the word "class", or "course" is missing, which is the usual way of students to talk about their subjects. In English, the phrase might be "We have to go to the music room" instead of must.

The German translation "Wir haben in den Musikraum zu gehen" would be understood, but is quite formal.

Additionally, there is a connotation that the speaker distances himself from the order he is being given. Let's start at the beginning. It has nothing to do with the German equivalent of "ouch!

It is reflexive such as in "I help myself", because the subject and the object are the same. Some phrases simply are constructed like this, even if there seems to be no real reason to this, and many languages know this phenomenon.

The "sich" here is technically the accusative of "he, she, it" and is being changed depending on the person:. Note that "to be happy" actually would be rather translated by "glücklich sein", but it is the closest English equivalent to "sich freuen".

This is kind of self-explanatory. But "sich auf etwas freuen", literally "to be happy on something " means "to look forward to".

This is a common phrase that uses the on in the same wide sense as in " on drugs", or "living on something" - there is no spatial relation here In "darauf" you recognize the "auf".

The "da" is a demonstrative prounoun such as in " that place". The "darauf" is referencing the word "Musik" from Silke's sentence. So "Au ja, darauf freue ich mich schon" or "to-this look-forward I myself already" just means "Great, I'm already looking forward to that".

Maybe it comforts you a little that the English phrase in a word-by-word translation to German would be just as unintelligible Note that adding a "glaube ich" is another common phrase, exacly as "I think" or "I believe" can be added to an English phrase.

Never mind the word order, this is because Alcohol is the object, so the verb is at the second position in the text.

Herbert Grönemeyer is a very popular German rock singer from the Ruhr region. His most famous songs include "Männer", "Bochum" a city in the Ruhr region , "Mensch" and also "Alkohol".

Better not think about "under" and "right" here, which you might have correctly recognized as the word's components "richten" literally means "to correct".

As in English, "Komm" can be used to motivate others. There is yet another contraction here "ins" is derived from "in das", meaning "in the".

This lesson deals with the Christmas time in the German language countries, where you learn some traditions and vocabularies about Christmas.

You'll also learn about "there is" and "there are" in German and about the dative case. Read and listen to the following dialogue between mother and daughter: Both of them want to decorate for Christmas.

In Germany the advent season begins on Sunday four weeks before Christmas. It's the day where many families decorate their houses or flats, begin to bake some biscuits and start to sing some Christmas carols.

One typical decoration is the advent wreath, which has four candles - one candle is lit in the first week, two candles in the second week, etc.

Another tradition, especially for children, is the advent calendar that you hang on the wall. They've often got 24 doors and you're only allowed to open one a day.

Other typical Christmas decorations are a crib, a Räuchermann - a wooden figure that blows flavour of incense cones - in Northern Germany a Moosmann, Christmas pyramids and Schwibbogen and nutcrackers and poinsettias and much more.

Most Christmas markets start in the first week of Advent. There you can buy some little Christmas presents, decorations, ride some carnival rides, and often drink some hot spiced wine - the children drink punch for children, listen to carolers and enjoy a warm, snowy atmosphere.

On the 6th of December, German children celebrate St. The children put a boot in front of the door and wait until St. Nicholas brings little presents that are often sweets, walnuts, apples, tangerines and oranges.

Bad children get birching by Knecht Ruprecht which is now forbidden in Germany. Pupils do a secret Santa with other pupils on the last school days before the Christmas holidays, which are often two or three weeks long.

Nicholas looks similar to Santa Claus who brings big presents on the evening of the 24th of December; in Southern Germany Christkind brings the presents.

Most families decorate their Christmas trees on this day with Christmas baubles and tinsel and candles and so forth.

After the Christmas dinner, the whole family sits next to the Christmas tree and exchanges gifts. In Switzerland they call it Guetsli.

The others, of course, would be useful to know for the weather forecast or when someone talks with you about weather. But you aren't forced to know Schniesel.

Because many people don't know this word. The accusative case is that of the object of a verb. Only transitive verbs take direct objects.

The pronoun and noun in two cases object in each of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English:. Note the order of the pronouns in this last sentence.

If the direct object here: Other uses of the accusative case in German will be explored in future lessons. Tables of the personal pronouns in all cases are summarized in Pronoun Tables.

The dative case is that of the indirect object of a verb. The pronoun indirect object of these sentences is underlined in the German and the English:.

This last sentence is an example from Gespräch using the polite form of 'you'. Whether singular or plural must be established by context.

This next sentence translates with ihnen as 'them':. Another use of the dative case in German is after these prepositions: You will be introduced to the meanings of these prepositions over many future lessons rather than all at once, because some have many meanings in English.

Indeed, because each language associates specific prepositions with many common sayings and these often do not correspond in German and English , these "little" words can be troublesome for students.

Nonetheless, you should memorize now the list of prepositions above to always remember their association with the dative case.

Tables of the pronouns in all cases are summarized in Appendix 2. Word order in a German sentence with an indirect object depends upon whether that direct object is a pronoun or a noun.

If the direct object is a noun, the dative precedes the accusative ; if the direct object is a personal pronoun, the accusative precedes the dative:.

Wenn er auf den Kontinent fährt, wandert Herr Standish gern. Heute früh fährt er in die Stadt St. Er spricht mit einer fremden Frau:.

Sankt Pölten ist die Landeshauptstadt von Niederösterreich. Pölten geht auf den heiligen Hippolytos zurück, nach dem die Stadt benannt wurde. Die Altstadt befindet sich dort, wo vom 2.

Jahrhundert die Römerstadt Aelium Cetium stand. Das Marktrecht erhielt St. Pölten um , zur Stadt erhoben wurde es Bis stand St.

Pölten im Besitz des Bistums Passau, dann wurde es landesfürstliches Eigentum. Bereits findet sich ein Benediktinerkloster, ab gab es Augustiner-Chorherren, wurde deren Kollegiatsstift aufgehoben, das Gebäude dient seit als Bischofssitz.

Zur Landeshauptstadt von Niederösterreich wurde St. Pölten mit Landtagsbeschluss vom Juli , seit ist es Sitz der Niederösterreichischen Landesregierung.

Adjectives are words that describe nouns. Most adjectives are stand-alone words; however, present and past participles can also be used as adjectives.

Numbers are also adjectives, though they do not decline. Attributive adjectives precede the noun that they are describing, and are always declined.

Learning the adjective endings is a central part to the study of German. The adjective endings are frequently one of the hardest topics for new students to learn.

It is best to commit the declension tables to memory, while attempting to speak independently. Proper use of adjective endings, especially in speaking, will come with repeated use.

They are described in the next part of this chapter. This section will make use of the mnemonic Oklahoma , which denotes the fields of nominative masculine; nominative neuter; accusative neuter; nominative feminine; and accusative feminine, which resemble the state of Oklahoma in the tables used below.

The concept is used to describe endings in two declension tables: The endings of attributive adjectives can be divided into two groups: The strong adjective endings are nearly the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter adjectives in the genitive case marked in bold.

Make note of the region, Oklahoma , in the nominative and accusitive cases, for weak endings. The principle guiding adjective endings is that a noun, when possible, should have a primary case ending.

Definite articles and der-words always provide a primary case ending. Indefinite articles and ein-words provide primary case endings outside of Oklahoma.

Sometimes nouns have no article, in which case adjectives provide the primary case ending. This terminology - strong and weak endings - is confusing for many students.

As the student develops, he or she will develop an ear for case endings, and will recognize when a noun has and has not received a case ending. Nonetheless, it is worth providing the three declension tables that result from this principle.

Adjectives following a definite article or der-word always have a weak ending. Within Oklahoma, that is "-e", and outside of Oklahoma, that is "-en".

Note how, within Oklahoma, adjectives take strong endings, and outside Oklahoma, they take weak endings.

This is because indefinite articles provide primary endings only outside of Oklahoma. Forms of nouns without articles are rare compared to those with definite and indefinite articles; however, one must still know the strong declension.

Note that the strong adjective declension is almost the same as the der-word endings, with the exceptions of masculine and neuter in the genitive case in bold.

Adverbs based on adjectives are one of the simplest parts of German grammar. Any adjective can be used as an adverb simply by placing its uninflected form within the sentence, usually towards the end.

Some adverbs are formed by adding -weise to adjectives and nouns in the plural form, and mean "regarding", "with respect to", or "-wise" in English.

Construction of new adverbs of this sort is usually frowned upon. Much of the material in this section will be explained in greater detail in the chapter on prepositions.

German has a complex system of adverbs based on prepositions, which are used to indicate direction of motion, location, time, and other concepts.

English also possesses such a system, though it is used less. Consider the following sentences in English:.

In both English and German, prepositions and particles derived from prepositions are treated as adverbs. In many cases, these prepositional adverbs are associated with specific verbs.

In the first two examples, the italicized prepositions are used as adverbs of motion; in the first example, the word "out" indicates the direction "out of the apartment"; in the second case, "over" not only means means the direction "towards", but also implies visitation of a residence.

The third and fourth examples correspond to separable-prefix verbs in German. The word "up" is integral to the verb, which would have a different meaning without the adverb.

In the fourth example, it is not even possible to "look someone", whereas it is possible to "look someone up," or "look a candidate's resume over".

English even has inseparable prepositional prefix verbs; compare "to look s. The adverbs in the fifth example correspond to da-, wo-, hin- and her- compounds in German.

Such compounds are often used in legal texts in English. In such compounds, the object of the preposition is replaced with the words "there" or "here", compounded with the preposition.

The German system of adverbs based on prepositions is considerably more rigorous, and forms the basis of a large part of the language's morphology.

A remnant of this in English can be found when describing a child's upbringing. As in English, prepositional adverbs in German to varying degrees alter the meaning of their associated verb.

This topic is better explored in the chapter on verbs. Separable prefixes are themselves adverbs. As in English, many of them are integral to the meaning of the verb.

Fangen means "to catch," whereas anfangen means "to begin". Most prepositional adverbs are treated as part of the root word in the infinitive, and are used as such in the construction of participles.

However, not all possible separable-prefix verbs are lexical; "vorbeikommen" to come over , "vorbeibringen" to bring over , and so on, may not all be listed in a dictionary.

It is better to learn "vorbei" as an adverb implying visitation. The German prefix in is of note. It has two adverbial forms. As in it describes location; when describing movement, it becomes ein.

Thus, for example, darin means "in there", whereas darein means "in to there". Another example is the word, einleiten , to introduce.

Prepositional adverbs of motion are usually based on hin- , implying motion or direction away from the speaker, and her- , implying motion or direction towards the speaker.

Hin and her are themselves stand-alone adverbs meaning the same thing, and describe less-specific motion or direction.

One example in which hin is an integral separable prefix is the verb hinrichten , which means "to execute.

Not all verbs formed from hin- and her- compounds are lexical. Some examples of hin- and her- compounds are:. Da- compounds are also adverbs, corresponding to "there-" compounds in English.

They replace specific prepositional objects. Although are used principally in legal texts and therefore sound formal in English, they are often employed in written and spoken German and are convenient replacements for long and complicated prepositional phrases.

Their comprehension and active use are essential in German. Da- compounds are formed by adding da- before the preposition, with an "r" inserted before prepositions starting with a vowel.

There are exceptions to this, and da- compounds are given a fuller treatment in the chapter on prepositions. Hier- and dort- compounds also exist in German, though they are used less frequently.

As in English, they are considered formal, and are used primarily in academic and legal texts. They are best memorized as vocabulary.

A noun is a word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or idea, that is, a part of speech. It can serve as the subject or object of a verb.

For example, a table ein Tisch , eine Tafel or a computer ein Computer. What makes nouns in German special is that they must start with a capital letter in the written language.

German, unlike English, has more than one way to make nouns plural, and plural form, like gender, must be memorized with every noun.

There are twelve different ways to form plurals in German. They are formed by affixes at the end of the word, and the umlaut of the vowel of the stem.

When German nouns are used in the plural, their gender becomes irrelevant. The plural can almost be thought of as a gender on its own. In the plural, the definite article is always "die" when using the nominative and accusative cases.

When using the dative case, "den" is the definite article of all plurals. All plurals not ending in -n or -s affix an -n.

Ich sah die alten Männer beim Schachspielen. I saw the old men as they played chess. Ich spielte mit den alten Männern Schach.

I played chess with the old men. Das Schachspiel der alten Männer war nicht sehr spannend. The old men's chess game was not very exciting.

Although gender and plural form are often arbitrary, there exist certain suffixes whose gender and plural form are regular. They are mainly feminine.

Many masculine nouns are formed by verbal stems without a suffix. Many of these receive an umlaut in their plural form.

German, like many other languages, gives each noun a gender: Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Plural nouns also act differently not only with the verb of the sentence, but the article preceding it.

However, not all German Nouns are randomly allocated a gender. The following notes will apply to most nouns but not all. This is derived from the diminutive form of Maid old, rarely used - Maidchen.

Grammatically it is neuter, but when referenced, nowadays the logical feminine gender can take over: There are far more masculine nouns than of either of the other genders.

The masculine nominative definite article is der. The feminine Gender article is die. It is used in the nominative and accusative singular case.

It is also used to indicate nominative and accusative plural for nouns of any gender. Schweiz, Slowakei, Türkei, Mongolei, Ukraine. The definite article of neuter countries is only used when there is an adjective, e.

The definite article of masculine and feminine countries is always used, e. Modem, Totem, Tandem, Requiem But these words with the stress on the first syllable are masculine: Holding because it is short for die Holdinggesellschaft.

Gedanke thought , Genuss enjoyment , Geschmack taste , Gewinn prize, profit , Geruch smell , Gestank stink , Gebrauch use , Gesang singing , Gefallen favor feminine: Fakt, Extrakt, Aquädukt, Viadukt Exceptions feminine: Katarakt different meaning than der Katarakt.

As most German articles can not be attributed to certain rule, it is best to always learn the article when learning the noun. You may think of the article as necessary information belonging to every noun.

You avoid a lot of looking-up-time that way. Most dictionaries do not give the article. Instead, you find different sets of abbreviations which tell you to which class the noun in question belongs.

The possessive is not a case of the personal pronoun; rather, it's a pronoun itself. This table shows the possessive pronoun's stem, which is declined as an ein- word that is, like the indefinite article "ein".

The genitive case indicates possession or association, and is equivalent to, and replaces, the English word "of".

Strict replacement of the genitive case with the word "of" maintains the word-order of the German nominal phrase: The genitive case also replaces "'s" in English, though reversing the word order possessed then possessor, vs.

German itself also uses an "s" though without the apostrophe to indicate possession, in the same word order as English.

It is used mainly with proper nouns, such as "Goethes Heimat", as well as for compounding words. Standard genitive constructions are used with nouns and modifiers of nouns such as articles and adjectives, and the inflection they receive implies possession.

The first noun may be in any case and may occur in any part of the sentence; the second noun, which possesses the first noun, immediately follows the first noun, and is in the genitive case.

The noun in the genitive case need not have any modifiers - e. Proper treatment of the genitive case, including all of the declensions, is found in another part of this book.

German pronouns have genitive forms, but they are used only rarely nowadays, mostly in archaic or formal German.

In many cases, a preposition can be added to allow a different case to be used. The possessive pronouns mein-, dein-, unser-, etc.

Alternatively, one could think of possessive pronouns, for example, "mein-", as replacing the phrase, "of me". Directly translated, "mein-" means "my" in English.

The car belongs to the friend, and the friend belongs to "him". For illustrative purposes, one could conceivably rewrite the prepositional phrase as "without the car accusative case of the friend of him".

German's rendering is far less awkward. Despite the difficulty many people have in learning German declensions, case endings in German correspond to each other to a considerable degree.

Specifically, the pronouns bear an obvious resemblance to their parent direct articles. Learning the corresponding third-person declensions side by side allows some people to comprehend the declension pattern more easily.

As discussed above, possessive pronouns replace the genitive case for pronouns. In this table, they will be placed where the genitive case is, so that their similarities to other parts of speech that actually are in the genitive case can become clear.

German is very rigorous in its use of gender, and will use the pronoun corresponding to the gender of the referential noun, regardless of whether the noun being referenced is a person unlike English, which uses "it" for everything not a person or other entities animals, ships in certain contexts.

Der Liberalismus will be referred to as "er", or "he", whereas "das Mädchen" would be "es", or "it". Many English speakers have trouble with this, especially in spoken language.

Mastery is nonetheless possible with a proper understanding of German declension, use of a few rules of thumb for example, nounds ending in "-chen" are usually neuter , and a considerable amount of practice.

Like the s's added to masculine and neuter nouns in the genitive, this is a remnant from when German inflected all of its nouns. Other languages based on declension, such as Russian and Latin, retain that characteristic.

Sometimes one will notice an "-e" after masculine and neuter nouns in the dative case, such as the dedication on the Reichstag building - "Dem deutschen Volke", "for the German People".

Here is the ultimate syntax guide for a main clause. German allows a considerable amount of syntactical freedom as parts of speech are indicated through case, rather than syntax.

Nonetheless, there are conventions to follow, especially ones that reduce the ambiguity of pronouns. This is the officially-sanctioned syntax of a main clause.

However, German syntax is not written in stone. One has considerable latitude in the way one constructs one's sentence. Before fleshing out the topic, here are some rules, conventions, and words of advice:.

Put it in its correct position. For example, you must not split something like, "mit einem Buch", for that is a prepositional phrase, i.

Many other sentence elements are, however, only one word. You get a lot better at this as time goes on. It doesn't happen very often, though.

Put the important stuff at the end. Then you get to your verb, which gives all of the words in the sentence meaning, resulting in a crescendo of emotion and understanding.

But you see how that might work. It will seem perfectly natural that the verb is in the second position, and that the other verbs are at the end.

Getting used to subordinate clauses takes more time, but eventually your words go to the right place. Don't worry about making mistakes, but also try not to forget which verb you have waiting in your head until the sentence ends.

Get used to explaining things in terms of "nominative", "accusative", "dative", and "genitive". Same goes for "linking-" and "helping-verbs".

Start talking about modal verbs, and modal-like verbs. Second position does not equal second word , as you can see above. However, there is only one group of words allowed before the conjugated verb.

Such groups of words are called "phrases". While you can put very long phrases in front of the conjugated verb you mustn't use two.

Therefore the sentence "Heute Abend ich fahre mit dem Auto nach Köln" is wrong. This is a big difference between English and German syntax.

Sometimes you have to use more than one verb part in a clause. This is true for Perfekt forms, separable verbs, modals etc. Only one of these verbs is conjugated.

The conjugated verb stays in second position, the other part goes to the end. Sometimes there are even three verbs in a sentence.

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